Standard For Common Materials For Forgings
- Feb 28, 2018 -

Basic knowledge of metal materials used in forgings


1. Ferrous and Non-ferrous Metals


1 Ferrous metals-usually refers to iron (sometimes including chromium and manganese) and alloys with iron as the basic element.


2 Non-ferrous metals-refers to iron (sometimes including chromium and manganese) and all metals other than alloys with iron as the base element. The United States, Britain, France and other countries also called it non-ferrous metals.



Ii. Steel and Iron


1, steel-iron and carbon based on the elements of the alloy, its carbon content (refers to the mass fraction) generally not more than 1.4%, while also containing a small number of other alloying elements: manganese (about 0.) 1%?1%), Silicon (under 0.4%), phosphorus (less than 0.05%), sulfur (less than 0.05%).


2, cast iron-carbon content in more than 2% of the iron-carbon containing gold as cast iron, in addition to iron and carbon, but also contains manganese, silicon, phosphorus, sulfur and other small amounts of other alloying elements, is also used to be called cast iron.


3, wrought iron-is a relatively Yu Sentie (cast-iron) of the customary term, there is no strict and accurate meaning, generally refers to the ductility can be good, can not harden the mild steel.


Iii. classification of steel for forgings


1. Comprehensive classification

1 Carbon Structural Steel

2 Carbon Structural Steel

3) Easy Cutting steel

4 Carbon tool Steel

5 Alloy Structural Steel

6 Alloy tool Steel

7 High speed 鉍 steel

8) Elastic Steel

9 Bearing Steel

10 Special Energy Steel

11 Professional Steel


2 by chemical composition

1) Carbon steel

① Mild steel-carbon content less than 0.25%

② Carbon Steel-carbon content of 0.25%-0.6%

③ High carbon steel-containing more than 0.6%

2) Alloy Steel

① Low alloy steel--alloy element total content less than 5%

Alloy steel in ②--the total content of alloying elements is 5%-10%

③ High alloy steel--the total content of alloying elements is greater than 10%


3) According to the use of processing methods

Steel for ① pressure processing (Hot press, top forging or cold drawing blanks)

② Steel for cutting process


4, by the use of points

1) Structural Steel

① Construction Steel

② Steel for mechanical manufacture

③ Steel and bearing steel

2 tool Steel

① Carbon tool Steel

② Alloy Tool Steel

③ High Speed tool steel

Steel for ④ Cutting tools

⑤ Measuring Steel

⑥ die Steel

3 Special Energy Steel

① Stainless acid resistant steel

② Resistant to skin steel

③ Electrothermal Alloy

④ Magnetic Materials

4 Professional Steel

① Marine Steel

② Bridge Steel

Steel for ③ pressure vessel

Steel for ④ Rolls

⑤ Other


5, according to the method of steel-making

1 Converter Steel

2 Open Hearth Steel

3) Electric Furnace Steel


6, according to the pre-ingot deoxidation degree

1) Calm Steel

2 Boiling Steel

3 Half-calm steel


7, according to Metallographic organization

1) According to the metallographic structure of steel after the return of fire

① hypoeutectoid

② hypoeutectoid

③ hypoeutectoid.

④ austenitic Steel

2 The structure of steel after normalizing

① Pearlite Steel

② Steel

③ Martensite Steel

④ austenitic Steel

3 According to heating and cooling when there is no phase change and room temperature of the metallographic organization

① Iron ferrite Steel

② Ferrite Steel

③ Semi-austenitic steel

④ austenitic Steel